Second-year students are assigned a supervisor and start working on their dissertations. They often leave for a period of research and study in a foreign institution. The choice of the institution where students spend their time abroad is made by the School, and it is based on students' input and on the relative rankings. Over the four years, students must spend at least six months abroad.
In the third year, students are also entirely devoted to their doctoral thesis, under the supervision of their advisors, and participation in the activities (seminars etc.) organised by their department of affiliation. The fourth year goes in the same way, and students must finalize their dissertation.
Participation in international workshops and conferences is recommended and financially supported.