Departing from traditional theory of international trade based on comparative advantage, in this course we focus on theories of trade based on the firm. Globalization has substantially changed the world economy and the nature of firms. There has been an increase in Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). Sub-contracting abroad in now a common practice. A third of total trade is intrafirm. Therefore, by acknowledging that firms - not countries - are involved in trade, recent developments have investigated the decisions to export and invest abroad at the firm level. The aim of the course is thus to provide analytical and conceptual tools - both theoretical and empirical - to understand the internationalization choices of companies, whether they export, import, or make foreign direct investments. The course is held in English. At the end of the course, students will be able to: - understand the economic reasons and the effects of the internationalization choices of firms; - have an overview of the problems inherent in internationalization processes; - to read and elaborate critically and autonomously the problems and perspectives that characterize the firms engaged in foreign markets both for the production and for the marketing of their products. - Finally, the student will also learn transferable skills, such as autonomy of judgment and critical sense with respect to the topics covered, written communication skills, and ability to learn independently.